Stalkers: Psychology and Medical Resources
The concept of stalking has been progressively taken into consideration in the past 15 years following an increasing number of cases arising in all developed Countries.
Here you will find some psychological and medical evaluation of the phenomenon, which will hopefully drive you to a more deep research through the available sources that we will care about suggesting to you through contact forms.
Women Who Stalk: Purcell et al. (psychiatryonline.org)
Extracts from the aforementioned paper:
(...) Stalking by woman is not uncommon. Community-based studies of stalking victimization indicate that women are identified as perpetrators in 12%-13% of cases. Studies conducted in forensic mental health settings have reported higher rates. (...)
Despite the frequency with which women engage in stalking, to our acknowledge no study to date has considered the contexts in which this behavior emerges among women or whether female stalkers differ from their male counterparts in relation to stalking characteristics or propensity for violence. (...)
Female stalkers were significantly less likely than male stalkers to follow their victims but significantly more likely to favour telephone calls or any form of indirect contact with their victims.
(...) Closely related to the choice of victims among female stalkers was the motivation for the stalking. For almost one-half, the stalking emerged from a desire to forge an intimate relationship with the victim.
One-quarter of the female stalkers manifested erotomaniac delusions, with the remainder hopeful that their pursuit would culminate in a relationship.
The nature of the hoped-for-intimacy, although usually romantic or sexual, also encompassed such aspirations as establishing a friendship or even a mothering alliance with the victim.
Contrary to popular assumptions, this study found that female stalkers are no less likely than their male counterparts to threathen their victims or attack their person or property.
Thus, while the context for stalking vary between men and women, the intrusiveness of the conduct and its potential for harm does not. There is no reason to presume that the impact of being stalked by a female would be any less devastating than theat of a man. (...)
Obsessive Love patterns
Obsessive love can head into dangerous consequences.
Psychiatrist John D. Moore described as "Obsessive Love Wheel" the pattern that moves from infatuation to damaging fixation the feeling of attachment to somebody. (ref. "Confusing Love With Obsession: When Being In Love means Being In Control").
Through the depiction of Psycho actions and also her reactions to people cutting her off or disveiling her tricks, you will easily reckon the stages of the Obsessive Love Wheel Cycle as well, furtherly encompassing the obsessive quality of Psycho's "likeness".
The Obsessive Love Wheel:
- Attraction Phase >> instant attraction to a person; immediate urge to hang around that person regardeless of logic and compatibility; becoming hooked; starting to create fantasies; start of the obsession and skyrocketing of attemts to stay in contact with the object of interest.
- Anxious Phase >> the obsessed person will consider that the victim has "committed" to the mutual relationship no matter common sense, through the smallest of evidence the victim hasn't rejected any of the obsessed attempts to have contact: therefore, any exchange of words, or written communications can be considered by the obsessed one a "proof of existing relationship". This lead to the overwhelming of contacts, which can become obsession of a considered "infidelity" by the victim if the unaware victim just tries to slow down the number of contacts for a while; the need to be the centre of the other's life manifest through repeated accesses; the controlling behaviour often tries to suggest pitiful feeling in the victim so that the victim will feel more committed to the obsessed one.
- Obsessive Phase >> all the attempts to be in contact start to emerge as obsessive; the onset of the tunnel vision comes, namely the obsessed one cannot stop talking or relate to the object of his/her interest; neurotic, compulsive behaviours arise; there is a constant monitoring of any activity that may relate to the victim, and teh surroundings; extreme contro antics arise, including those where the obsessed one question the victim's real love interests and the committment to relationship patterns.
- Destructive Phase >> once the obsessed one has shown the previouses behaviours, very likely the victim will cut any contact, causing reactions in rage from the obsessed lover (ORP Cycle, Obsessive Relational Progression, n.d.r.); anger, rage and a desire to seek revenge against the victim will be on display, usually after a phase where the obsessive lover will DENY any responsibility in the previouses untakeable behaviors; promise to change in case the victim will tale the obsessive lover "back"; escaping patterns to "medicate" the emotional pain; very likely, a research for a new obsession.
Stalking : a sheer definition from Wikipedia
Stalking is a term commonly used to refer to unwanted, obsessive attention by individuals (and sometimes groups of people) to others. Stalking behaviors are related to harassment and intimidation. The word "stalking" is used, with some differing meanings, in psychology and psychiatry and also in some legal jurisdictions as a term for a criminal offense. It may also be used to refer to criminal offences or civil wrongs that include conduct which some people consider to be stalking, such as those described in law as "harassment" or similar terms.
Stalking can be defined as the willful and repeated following, watching, and / or harassing of another person. Most of the time, the purpose of stalking is to attempt to force a relationship with someone who is unwilling or otherwise unavailable. Unlike other crimes, which usually involve one act, stalking is a series of actions that occur over a period of time. Although stalking is illegal, the actions that contribute to stalking are usually legal, such as gathering information, calling someone on the phone, sending gifts, emailing or instant messaging. Such actions by themselves are not usually abusive, but can become abusive when frequently repeated over time.
People characterized as stalkers may have a mistaken belief that another person loves them (erotomania), or have a desire to help the other person. Stalkin consists of a series of actions which in themselves can be legal, such as calling on the phone, sending gifts, sending emails, indulging in an overrated number of digital contacts or attempts to contact repeatedly the object of obsessions.
Types of stalkers
Psychologists often group individuals who stalk into two categories: psychotic and nonpsychotic. Many stalkers have pre-existing psychotic disorders such as delusional disorder, schizoaffective disorder, or schizophrenia. Most stalkers are nonpsychotic and may exhibit disorders or neuroses such as major depression, adjustment disorder, or substance dependence, as well as a variety of Axis II personality disorders (such as antisocial, avoidant, borderline, dependent, narcissistic, or paranoid). Some of the symptoms of "obsessing" over a person is part of obsessive compulsive personality disorder. The nonpsychotic stalkers' pursuit of victims can be influenced by various psychological factors, including anger, hostility, projection of blame, obsession, dependency, minimization, denial, and jealousy. Conversely, as is more commonly the case, the stalker has no antipathic feelings towards the victim, but simply a longing that cannot be fulfilled due to either in their personality or their society's norms.
In "A Study of Stalkers" Mullen et al.. (2000) identified five types of stalkers:
- Rejected stalkers
- Resentful stalkers
- Intimacy seekers
- Incompetent suitors
- Predatory stalkers
Intimacy-seeking stalkers often have delusional disorders involving erotomanic delusions. With rejected stalkers, the continual clinging to a relationship of an inadequate or dependent person couples with the entitlement of the narcissistic personality, and the persistent jealousy of the paranoid personality. In contrast, resentful stalkers demonstrate an almost “pure culture of persecution,” with delusional disorders of the paranoid type, paranoid personalities, and paranoid schizophrenia.
NOTE: the two categories referring to the Mullen et Al. Study that I have purposedly enlightened out from the Wikipedia page actually BOTH refer to our Case of Study, namely "Psycho".
I will enlighten how her behaviour and obsessive compulsion uses both the intimacy-seeking stalker code and the resentful stalker code.
Beaing Psycho a female, the two types of stalkering profile rightfully compose themselves into one mash-up.
In fact, these two are the two most common profiles of stalkering referred to females.